カランメソッド ステージ6 何を学ぶ?

カランメソッド

カランメソッド Stage 6 を修了しました。

カランメソッドとは、ベルリッツで働いていたロビン・カランにより確立された英語のみ用いて英語を学ぶダイレクトメソッドです。日本語を話せない外国人講師が英語を教えるのに最も効率的な教授法と言われています。

この記事では、カランメソッドの Stage6でどのようなことを学ぶのか、ポイントとその説明を踏まえて内容をご紹介します。

目次

未来形の3つの基本用法について

カランメソッドのStage6では、日本人英語学習者が戸惑う未来形の3つの基本用法を定英に学ぶことができます。

1、「今この瞬間、何かをすることを決めた」ということを伝える

未来形の3つの基本用法のひとつ目は、「今この瞬間、何かをすることを決めた」ということを伝える です。

  1. Tell me one common use of the future simple, please. – One common use of the future simple is to communicate that we have just this moment decided to do something
  2. Give me an example, please. – I can’t remember what she looks like but I’m sure I’ll recognize her when I see her

2、すでに持っている情報を使って予測を立てる

未来形の3つの基本用法のひとつ目は、すでに持っている情報を使って予測を立てる ことです。

  1. Tell me one common use of “to be going to“, please. – One common use of “to be going to“ is to make a prediction using the information we already have
  2. Give me an example, please. – Be careful; that wine glass is going to fall off the table! 気をつけてください。ワイングラスがテーブルから落ちてしまいますよ。

3、未来の意図を伝えることで、すでに決めたことをすること

未来形の3つの基本用法のひとつ目は、未来の意図を伝えることで、すでに決めたことをする ことです。

  1. Tell me another common use of “to be going to“, please. – Another common use of “to be going to“ is to communicate a future intention; something that we have already decided to do 未来の意図を伝えることで、すでに決めたことをすることです。
  2. Give me an example, please. – I’m going to go to the cinema next Saturday

演習問題

  1. Tell me what you have decided to do this afternoon, please. – This afternoon, I’m going to visit a friend etc.

上記の質問を講師にその場でされると案外スラスラと英語が出てこないこともあります。ぼーっとしていたりとか、緊張していたりとか、実力以上のものがレッスン中で出せるとは限りません。できなくても落ち込まず、音読暗唱をし続けていきます。

downstairs / upstairs 1階 / 2階

英語学習者が意外に言えない英単語の中に、家の中の「1階」「2階」があるでしょう。
「downstairs / upstairs」は名詞と副詞として使うことができます。

  1. In a house, are the bedrooms usually downstairs? – No, in a house the bedrooms aren’t usually downstairs;they’re usually upstairs
  2. And is the living room usually upstairs? – No, the living room isn’t usually upstairs; it’s usually downstairs

stairs 階段

日常生活でも使うシーンが多い「階段」カランで使い方をマスターしましょう。

  1. If you had to get to a room that was on the tenth floor of a building, would you take the stairs or the lift? – Yes, If I had to get to a room that was on the tenth floor of a building, I’d take the lift.

top/bottom / lipstick 上下 口紅

  1. Is this my top lip? – No, it isn’t your top lip; it’s your bottom lip
  2. Do you think women look better with or without lipstick? – I think women look better with lipstick

democratic 民主主義の

  1. What system of government do you have in your country? – We have a democratic system of government in my country

sailing 航行 a sailor 船員

  1. Is sailing a popular sport in your country? – No, sailing isn’t a popular sport in my country * sailing: the sport or activity of traveling in a boat with sails
  2. *a sailor: a person who works on a ship – No, I wouldn’t like to be a sailor

the auxiliary verb (助動詞)

このページでは、現在形(the present simple) の肯定分で使う、「do」の助動詞的用法について学びます。

現在形の動詞を強調したいときに、現在の単純時制を用いた肯定的な文章の中で、助動詞「do」を使います。英語では the emphatic “do” とも呼ばれています。

  1. When do we use the auxiliary verb(助動詞) “do” in a positive sentence with the present simple tense? – We use the auxiliary verb “do” in a positive sentence with the present simple tense when we want to be emphatic 強調したいときには、現在の単純時制を用いた肯定的な文章の中で、助動詞「do」を使います
  2. Give me an example, please. – For example, if somebody says “You don’t eat enough vegetables”, I can reply “Yes I do eat enough vegetables!”
  3. Reply to this sentence using the emphatic form, please: you don’t know what I’ve got in my pocket. – Yes, I do know what you’ve got in your pocket!
  4. Tell me another use of the emphatic “do”, please. – Another use of the emphatic “do” is in an exclamation 強調された “do “のもう一つの使い方は、感嘆文の中にあります。
  5. Reply to this sentence using the emphatic form in the past, please: He didn’t cycle home yesterday.- Yes, he did cycle home yesterday!
  6. Reply to these sentences using emphatic forms, please: You can’t read quickly. – Yes I can read quickly!
  7. The weather’s been good. – No, the weather has not been good!
  8. She doesn’t love her family. – Yes, she does love her family!
  9. He came to school early.- No, he didn’t come to school early!
  10. We shouldn’t tell him the news. – Yes, we should tell him the news!

多義語 fair の5つの意味

普段意識することはないですが、実は fair は多義語で5つ以上の意味を含んでいます。

  1. What are the five meanings of the word “fair”? – The five meanings of the word “fair” are fair hair, industrial and agricultural fairs, just, moderate, and fun fair. 金髪(色素の薄い髪)、博覧会、見本市、かなり良いまずまずの、縁日(娯楽のためのイベント)

直接話法と間接話法

446 では、直接話法(direct speech)と間接話法(indirect speech)を学びます。

上記の文法は文法書で記載されていますが、実際にスピーキングで話すときに意識できている人は少ないのではないでしょうか。

直接話法(direct speech)は、「彼が〜と言った」と英語で表現する際に使うことができます。


例えば、

He said that ” I like cold weather” と、”引用付”(inverted commas)をつけて「そのときに使われた時制」で表現します。

一方、間接話法(indirect speech)も「彼が~~と言った」と英語で表現する際に使うことができる表現です。
しかし”引用付”(inverted commas)は不要ですが、時制は「ひとつ前の時制」で表現をします。
例えば、

He said that he liked cold weather と、”引用付”(inverted commas)を付けず、「そのときに使われた時制のひとつ前の時制」で表現することもあります。

ひと通り、直接話法と間接話法の文法ルールを学んだ後、講師からいくつか例文を投げかけられるので、直接話法⇆間接話法を用いて瞬時に回答していきます。

これがなかなか難しかったです。

  1. “I swim every day”– What did I say? – You said that you swam every day
  2. “She is speaking to you”– What did I say? – You said that she was speaking to me
  3. “I have just taken the pen from the table”– What did I say? – You said that you had just taken the pen from the table
  4. “I think I will go to London tomorrow”– What did I say? – You said that you thought you would go to London tomorrow
  5. “They had books in their hands when they came into the room”– What did I say? – You said that they had books in their hands when they came into the room
  6. “I ate too much for dinner”– What did I say? – You said you had eaten too much for dinner

ポイント:3つの基本動詞変速を覚えておくと学ぶが捗ります。

間違えやすい基本動詞変速
swim – swam – swum
flow – flew – flown

次に、間接話法(indirect speech)についてもう少し学んでいきます。


間接話法(indirect speech)の時にinverted commas(引用符)を使いますか?と問われますので、「いいえ」と答えます。カランの場合は、回答をフルセンテンスで言わなければなりません。そのため、

Do we use inverted commas(引用符) for indirect speech? - No, we don’t use inverted commas for indirect speech

という、質問と回答になります。

次に、間接話法(indirect speech)の際は “that” を必ず使わなければなりませんか?と問われますので「いいえ」と回答します。

Is it generally necessary to use the word “that“ when we use indirect speech? No, it isn’t generally necessary to use the word “that” when we use indirect speech

という、質問と回答になります。

flat (平ら)と round ( 丸い)

次に学ぶのは、 flat と round についてです。これは中学生でもわかる朝基本単語だと思いますが、大人になると「地面が平らって英語でなんだっけな?」とか「地球は丸いと英語でなんていうんだっけな?」といざ実際に英語で表現しなければいけない時って思い出せないんですよね。

カランメソッドでは、何度も繰り返し単語やフレーズ、文法の概念を学びますので、忘れっぽい人でも安心して受講することができますよ。

  1. Did people in the old days believe the world was round? – No, people in the old days didn’t believe the world was round; they believed it was flat
  2. Which is one of the flattest parts of this country? – One of the flattest parts of this country is Greater Manchester

pity (憐れみ、同情)

  1. Would you think it was a great pity if you went for a picnic in the country and it rained? – Yes, I’d think it was a great pity if I went for a picnic in the country and it rained
  2. What kind of people do you pity most? – I pity ill people most

動詞 blow の基本3変則

  1. What are the three forms of “blow”? – The three forms of “blow” are “blow, blew, blown”
  2. Have you ever been blown off your feet by the wind? – No, I’ve never been blown off my feet by the wind

what と whatever の違い ( whoever / wherever…)

普段英語を使う中で、what と whatever の違いについて説明せよ、と言われることはなかなかないですが、カランでは聞かれます。違いはとても簡単でひとことで説明できるようになります。

what は範囲が広く使われ、whatever は限られた範囲で使われます。

  1. What’s the difference between the words “what” and “whatever”? – The difference between the words “what” and “whatever” is that we use the word “what” in a limited sense, whereas we use the word “whatever“ in a more unlimited sens
  2. If you could buy whatever you wanted, what would you buy? – If I could buy whatever I wanted, I’d buy a sportscar
  3. Can you go for a holiday whenever you like? – No, I can’t go for a holiday whenever I like
  4. Why or why not?  – 「(回答を自分で考えてみましょう)」

上記③の質問「いつでもいきたいときに長期休みを取れますか?」は自由形式で回答させられることがあります。私は、Because I have work. としか回答できませんでした。

回答例は「Because I have to work for most of the year」となっていました。「1年のうちほとんど」などの期間の表現まで言えたらパーフェクトな回答でしたね。ぜひ、カランを受けているうちにひとことの回答ではなくて、きちんとした文章で答えられるようになりたいものですね。

the truth (真実) と lies (嘘)

意外に表現できない「真実と嘘」。

The truth: a real fact → 真実
lies : something not true → 嘘

  1. Do you always tell the truth?- No, I don’t always tell the truth; sometimes I tell lies
  2. Why or why not? – Because it’s sometimes necessary to tell lies in order not to be unpleasant
  3. Do newspapers always tell the truth? – No, newspapers don’t always tell the truth; sometimes they tell lies

    tell the truth で、「真実をいう、事実を伝える」という意味ですね。

一方で「嘘をつく」は ” tell lies”です。 そういえばThe がつかないのね…なんて少し疑問に思いましたが、習うより慣れろ!の精神で何度も音読しました。

  1. Why do they sometimes tell lies? – They sometimes tell lies because they want to get attention¥

miss 取り損ねる、恋しがる

” I miss you. ” ” Missing” など状況によって様々な意味を持たせることができる単語です。今回は、「to late for something」という意味で学びました。

取り損ねる

英単語を1文の英語で学べるって、私にはとても合っています。英単語を見ると「 to late for something」とパッと頭に浮かぶようになりました。

  1. What’s the opposite of the verb “to catch“? – The opposite of the verb “to catch” is “to miss”
  2. If I threw my pen to you, do you think you’d catch it or miss it? – If you threw your pen to me, I think I’d catch it
  3. Are you in the habit of missing trains and buses? – No, I’m not in the habit of missing trains and buses
  4. Why or why not? – Because I always give myself plenty of time to catch trains and buses
  5. Did you miss the last lesson? – No, I didn’t miss the last lesson
  6. If so, why? – I overslept

上記④の「電車やバスにまにあわないことがありますか?」という質問の回答も悩みました。でも、回答例を暗唱したので、万が一このタイプの質問をされても自信を持って「 Because I always give myself plenty of time to catch trains and busses」ということができますね。

恋しがる

I miss you. とアメリカ人は誰かれ構わず言いますが、「miss = to feel sad」という意味もありますね。

  1. How long do you have to be away from home before you begin to miss your family and friends? – I have to be away from home for about a month before I begin to miss my family and friends

union, trade union (組合、労働組合) in favor of (支持する)

日常生活で使わなさそうな英単語もカランでは学ぶときはあります。このような時間は少し苦痛ですが、それに付随して学ぶフレーズがとても役立ちそうな時もあるので、辛抱強く学んでいきましょう!

  1. Do you think that a union of all the countries in Europe will ever be possible? – No, I don’t think that a union of all the countries in Europe will ever be possible
  2. What is a trade union? – A trade union is an organization composed of workers from a particular industry. It protects the workers and fights to improve their pay and conditions

in favor of ( to support ) という表現も学び、下記のような文章を暗唱しました。

  1. Are you in favor of trade unions? – No, I’m not in favor of trade unions いいえ、私は労働組合に賛成ではありません。

climb (登る)

  1. What’d you see if you climbed the stairs to the top of this building? – If I climbed the stairs to the top of this building, I’d see other buildings
  2. Is it easy to climb to the top of the music industry and stay there? – No, it isn’t easy to climb to the top of the music industry and stay there; it’s difficult

lose, look for. (失くす、探す)

  1. If you lost your keys, where would you look for them first? – If I lost my keys, I would look for them in my bag first

look for は「探し求める」のような意味合いも含まれていますが、その意味は「正義を求めるときにどこにいくか」という質問につながっていきます。人々が、正義を求めるときにいくさきは「裁判所( law courts)」です。

looking for, justice, the law courts (探し求める、正義、裁判所)

  1. Where do people go when they are looking for justice? – People go to the law courts when they are looking for justice

名詞、形容詞から動詞を作る ( – en )

名詞、形容詞から動詞を作ることができる文法ルールを学びます。このルールを知っていれば、語彙力が増えそうですね。

dark – darken
short – shorten

  1. How do we form verbs from certain adjectives or nouns? – We form verbs from certain adjectives or nouns by adding the letters “en“
  2. Give me some examples, please. – dark – darken; short – shorten etc.
  3. What does the verb “to darken“ mean? – The verb “to darken“ means “to make darker“ or “to get darker”

shorten / lengthen / strengthen 短くする/長くする/強くする

  1. If our trousers are too long, what must we do to them? – If our trousers are too long, we must shorten them
  2. Do the days lengthen/ˈlɛŋkθən/ or shorten as we go towards summer?- The days lengthen as we go towards summer
  3. Do you think sport can strengthen the friendship between different countries? – No, I don’t think sport can strengthen the friendship between different countries

ただし、全ての名詞、形容詞が、 – en を加えることで、動詞になるわけではないとも学びました。例えば、「small」は「smallen」とは言えません。そして、文法ルールもあります。

  1. How many syllables must an adjective or noun have in order for us to form a verb from it? – An adjective or noun must have only one syllable/ˈsɪləbl/ in order for us to form a verb from it.
  2. Can we form verbs from all adjectives and nouns of one syllable? – No, we can’t form verbs from all adjectives and nouns of one syllable 一音節の形容詞や名詞から動詞を作ることはできません。
  3. Give me an example of a one-syllable adjective from which we can’t form a verb? – An example of a one-syllable adjective from which we can’t form a verb is “small“

obvious 明らかな

obvious は easy to see or understand という意味です。「わかりやすい態度を取る人」が身近にいる人は「obcious」を使って表現ができます。例えば、「明らかに眠たさそうにしている子どもが寝たくないと駄々こねている」という感じです。

  1. Give me a sentence with the word “obvious“. – It is obvious from what he says that he is not interested in the job
  2. Do small children sometimes say they aren’t tired when they obviously are?- Yes, small children sometimes say they aren’t tired when they obviously are
  3. Why? – Because they don’t want to go to bed etc.

ache (続く身体的な痛み)

acheは「continuous physical pain 」と一文で学ぶことができます。

  1. What is an ache? – An ache is continuous physical pain, such as toothache, headache, stomach ache, earache etc.
  2. What might you get if you ate too much? – I might get a stomach ache if I ate too much

身体的な痛み(腹痛、頭痛、歯痛)

  1. Where should you go if you get toothache? – I should go to the dentist’s if I get a toothache
  2. What kind of things gives you a headache? – The kind of things that give me a headache are noise, too much work, hot weather etc.

rules, confuse (規則、困惑する)

世の中には複雑すぎて「困惑する規則」が多くあります。

  1. Do you understand the rules of football? – No, I don’t understand the rules of football
  2. Do the rules of English grammar sometimes confuse you? – Yes, the rules of English grammar sometimes confuse me
  3. Do you find computers confusing? – No, I don’t find computers confusing
  4. Would you be confused if I suddenly walked out of the room for no reason and didn’t come back? – Yes, I’d be confused if you suddenly walked out of the room for no reason and didn’t come back

ought ( =should) 〜すべき

高校文法書でよく出る「ought」。お堅い響きの単語のため「should」を使うのが一般的です。

  1. What can we say instead of “should”? – We can say “ought” instead of “should”
  2. Give me an example, please. – I ought to call my dad because it’s his birthday
  3. When we borrow money, ought we to pay it back as soon as possible? – Yes, when we borrow money, we ought to pay it back as soon as possible
  4. What ought we to do before crossing the road? – We ought to look both ways before crossing the road
  5. Do you think children ought to be allowed to go to bed whenever they want? – No, I don’t think children ought to be allowed to go to bed whenever they want

rough/smooth/seasick (荒い、 滑らかな、船酔い)481p

  1. Is the surface of this table rough? – No, the surface of this table isn’t rough; it’s smooth
  2. When you travel by boat, do you prefer the sea to be rough? – No, when I travel by boat, I don’t prefer the sea to be rough; I prefer it to be calm
  3. Why?- Because a rough sea makes me feel seasick
  4. If someone tells you that they’re feeling rough, what do they mean? – If someone tells me that they’re feeling rough, they mean they aren’t feeling very well
  5. Roughly how many people would you say there were in Spain?I’d say there were roughly 47 million people in Spain

副詞のRoughlyは「粗雑に、大ざっぱに 」という意味もあるのですね。数字に関して使われる場合は、「大体、大雑把に」という意味になります。

ここで以下の例文を学びます。

“Is it a good idea to give one’s house a thorough cleaning from top to bottom every now and again?” – Stage 6 481p

この文から英語の大事な基礎文法を使っていることを意識したいところであります。

S + V + O + C : give + O + C → OにCを与える
上記の例文を直訳すると「家に徹底的な掃除を与える」ですが、日本語で考えるのではなくて、頭の中にそのイメージを浮かべて日本語でならどのように表現するのかと考えたほうがラクだと個人的に思っています。

“Is it a good idea to give one’s house a thorough cleaning from top to bottom every now and again” →たまには家の中を隅々まで掃除してみるのもいいかもしれませんね。という訳になります。

every now and again / every now and once  時々・時折

「時折」という日本語の意味を確認します。

時折:「いつもというほどではなく、頻度がかなり低いこと」

https://eigobu.jp/magazine/tokiori-tokidoki

(every) now and again の意味を確認します。

(every) now and again/then 
from time to time; occasionally

https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/american_english/again#again__73

occasionallyの意味を確認します。

occasionally
sometimes, but not often

https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/american_english/occasionally?q=occasionally

“occasionally”は「時々、しかし頻繁ではく」という意味が含まれていたのですね。”every now and once/again”と同じような意味が含まれていることがわかりました。

once/wʌns/ 
on one occasion only; one time

https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/american_english/occasion_1?q=occasion

ちなみに”once”は「いち度の機会。一回」という意味です。

everyの意味も確認してみましょう。

every
3. used to say how often something happens or is done 何かが起こったり、行われたりする頻度を表すのに使われます。

https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/american_english/every?q=every

“every now” = 「何かが行われる頻度」を表し、”and once” =「一度の機会」という意味を含んでいるようです。ややこしいのですが、頻度と一回で「時々」という意味になるようですね。

no longer / too long

  1. 着なくなった服はどうしていますか? What do you do with clothes that you no longer wear?
  2. パソコンの画面を長時間見続けるのは目に悪いですか? Is it bad for your eyes to look at a computer screen for too long?

boast/boʊst/ 自慢する

boast 「自分が持っている、あるいはできることについて、誇らしげに語ること(語りすぎること)」です。

  1. 人がよく自慢するのはどんなことですか?- 人は自分の仕事や所有しているものなどをよく自慢します。 What kind of things do people often boast about? – People often boast about their jobs, things that they own etc.

necessity 必要性

  1. 最近では、職業によってはネクタイの着用が必須となっているのでしょうか? – はい。最近では、職業によってはネクタイが必要な場合もあります。 Is wearing a tie a necessity for some occupations these days? – Yes, wearing a tie is a necessity for some occupations these days

“tell” and “say” 違い 483p Lesson 93

  1. tell “と “say “の一番の違いは何ですか?- tell “と “say “の最も重要な違いは、”tell “の後には相手を示しますが、”say “の後には相手を示さないことが多いということです。 What’s the most important difference between “tell” and “say”? – The most important difference between “tell” and “say” is that after “tell” we indicate the person we are speaking to, but after “say” we usually do not
  2. Give me an example, please. – She told him that it was important. / She said it was important
  3. 直接話法を用いる場合、普通はどちらの動詞を使いますか?「say “か “tell “か?- 直接話法をする場合、通常は “say “という動詞を使います。 For direct speech, which verb do we normally use: “say” or “tell”? – For direct speech, we normally use the verb “say”
  4. 一例を挙げてください。- 彼女はそれが重要だと言った。彼女はそれが重要であると言いました Give me an example, please. – She told him that it was important. She said it was important
  5. 直接話法をする場合、普通はどちらの動詞を使いますか?「say “か “tell “か?- 直接話法をする場合、通常は “say “という動詞を使います。 For direct speech, which verb do we normally use: “say” or “tell”? – For direct speech, we normally use the verb “say”
  6. 例を挙げてください。- 彼女は “I’m hungry” Give me an example, please. – She said “I’m hungry”
  7. どちらの文が正しいですか?He told me to go away または He said me to go away – 最初の文 – He told me to go away – が正しい。 Which of these sentences is correct? He told me to go away or He said me to go away – The first sentence – He told me to go away – is the correct

→直接話法について何度も触れているので、重要文法ルールだと思います

rise- rose – risen 動詞変則

「rise」の3つの形とは?- rise」の3つの形は、”rise, rose, risen” です。 What are the three forms of “rise”? – The three forms of “rise” are “rise, rose, risen”

あなたは太陽が昇る前に起きたことがありますか?- いいえ、太陽が昇る前に昇ったことはありません Have you ever risen before the sun has risen? – No, I’ve never risen before the sun has risen

to earn / to gain

to earn: “to receive money for work done”. → 仕事をすることでお金を稼ぐ

to gain: “generally means “to get more of something” → 広い意味で何かをもっと得ること

What’s the difference between “to earn” and “to gain”? – The difference between “to earn” and “to gain” is that the verb “to earn” generally means “to receive money for work done”, whereas the verb “to gain” generally means “to get more of something”

もしあなたが400万ポンドでビジネスを買い、後でその半分の金額で売ったとしたら、そうすることであなたは得をするでしょうか?- いや、もし私が400万ポンドでビジネスを買って、後にその半分の金額で売ったとしたら、そうすることで得をするのではなく、損をすることになるでしょう If you bought a business for £4 million and sold it later for half that amount, would you be gaining by doing so? – No, if I bought a business for £4 million and sold it later for half that amount, I wouldn’t be gaining by doing so; I’d be losing

→数字がちょくちょく出てきます。数字が苦手な人はここで頭を整理するチャンスです。

損失額はどのくらいですか?- 私の損失は200万ポンドです How much would your loss be? – My loss would be £2 million

gain time / lose time / keep perfect time 時計が遅れる、早まる、ぴったりである

あなたの時計は一般的に時間の増減があるのでしょうか、それとも完璧な時間を保っているのでしょうか?- 私の時計は一般的に完璧な時間を保ちます Does your watch generally gain or lose time, or does it keep perfect time? – My watch generally keep perfect time.

友達を増やすにはどうしたらいいですか?- 友達を増やす一番の方法は、人に親切にすることです。 What’s the best way to gain friends? – The best way to gain friends is to be nice to people

あなたの国では、大学で学位を取得するのに、平均してどのくらいの時間がかかりますか?- 私の国では、大学で学位を取得するのに、平均して約4年かかります。 How long does it take the average student to gain a degree at university in your country? – It takes the average student about 4 years to gain a degree at university in my country

言語を学ぶ上で、その言語が話されている国に行くことで得られるものはありますか?- はい、言語の習得に関しては、その言語が話されている国に行くことで何かを得られると思います。 As regards learning a language, would you gain anything by going to the country where it was spoken? – Yes, as regards learning a language, I’d gain something by going to the country where it was spoken

なぜかというと、その言語を毎日話すことができるからです。 Why? – Because I’d be able to speak the language every day

mark の3つの意味 1.書く、描く 2.汚す、傷つける 3.印をつける、評価する

  1. Are there any marks on these walls? – Yes, there are some marks on these walls
  2. What kind of marks are they? – They’re all kinds of marks いろんなマークがあります
  3. Who marks your dictations? – I mark my dictations myself *dictations: 口述される文章を筆記する
  4. How many marks did you get in your last English exam? – I got 90 marks out of 100 in my last English exam
  5. Which petrol company do you think has the most well-known trademark? – I think Shell has the most well-known trademark
  6. What part of the book is this? – It’s the bottom, or the base, of the book
  7. What do you consider/kənˈsɪdər/ to be the basis of a good life? *consider somebody/something (to be) – I consider happiness to be the basis of a good life
  8. Is it normal for language learners to continue making basic grammatical mistakes even though they know the rules? – Yes, it’s normal for language learners to continue making basic grammatical mistakes even though they know the rules
  9. What do you think is basically the difference between your own language and English? – I think that, basically, the difference between my own language and English is the pronunciation and the grammar
  10. When you stay at a hotel for one night, does the price you pay usually include breakfast? – No, when you stay at a hotel for one night, the price you pay doesn’t usually include breakfast

brush 3種類のブラシ

  1. What do we use to clean our shoes with? – We use a shoe brush to clean our shoes with
  2. What other kinds of brushes are there? – There are hairbrushes, toothbrushes, paintbrushes etc.

boxing 名詞と動詞の意味 「スポーツのボクシング」「殴る」

  1. Do you like to watch boxing? – No, I don’t like to watch boxing
  2. Why not? – Because it’s very unpleasant

type 名詞と動詞 「階級、同じようなレベル 」「(文字を)打つ」

  1. What type of film do you watch most? – I watch comedies the most
  2. How many words a minute? – About 30 words a minute

previous – earlier in time 前の

  1. Have you met me on many previous occasions? – No, I haven’t met you on many previous occasions

occasion – particular time something happens 事象が起こる特定の時

  1. Why do people often make videos of special occasions like weddings? – People often make videos of special occasions like weddings so that they can remember them better

plan – map, intention 地図、意図

  1. What do we mean by a street plan of a town? – By a street plan of a town, we mean a map showing the streets of the town and their names
  2. Do you usually write your plans in a diary? – No, I don’t usually write my plans in a diary
  3. Do you think it’s a good idea for teenagers to plan their futures whilst still at school? – Yes, I think it’s a good idea for teenagers to plan their futures whilst still at school
  4. Why? – Because they can consider their choices

interference – The act of getting involved yourself when you are not wanted or needed 干渉される

  1. Do you think young people should be allowed to plan their own future without the interference of their parents?- No, I don’t think a young person should be allowed to plan their own future without the interference of their parents
  2. Why not? – Because young people don’t always know what’s best

The basic types of auxiliary/ɔɡˈzɪlyəri/ 助動詞の基本形

  1. What are the two basic types of the auxiliary verb in English? – The two basic types of the auxiliary verbs in English are primary auxiliaries and modal auxiliaries
  2. What are the primary auxiliaries? – The primary auxiliaries are the verbs “be“, “have“ and “do“
  3. When do we use the auxiliary “be”? – We use the auxiliary “be” to make the continuous tenses and the passive voice 連続した時制や受動態を作るのに、助動詞「be」を使います
  4. Give me an example, please. – This book was printed in England
  5. When do we use the auxiliary “have”? – We use the auxiliary “have“ for the perfect tenses
  6. Give me an example, please. – He has gone to Scotland
  7. When do we use the auxiliary “do”? – We use the auxiliary “do“ for the present simple and past simple
  8. Give me an example, please. – Did she eat the pasta?
  9. What are the ten common modals? – The ten common modals are “can”, “could”, “will”, “would”, “may”, “might”, “shall”, “should”, “must” and “ought”
  10. Now, I will give you a sentence, and you say a sentence with the same meaning, but with a modal: John is able to speak French. – John can speak French
  11. Perhaps he works in a bank. – He may work in a bank
  12. Perhaps he works in a bank. – He may work in a bank
  13. It is necessary for me to go to bed now. – I must go to bed now
  14. It is necessary for me to go to bed now. – I must go to bed now
  15. You are not allowed to smoke in this building. – You can’t smoke in this building
  16. What do we put after a modal? – We put the infinitive without “to” after a modal
  17. Give me an example, please. – I must send this email today
  18. Which modal is the only exception to this rule? – “Ought” is the only exception to this rule
  19. Give me an example, please. – I ought to see a doctor

set – arrange, put/start

  1. How long is the time set for a game of football? – The time set for a game of football is 90 minutes; that is, 45 minutes each way.
  2. What kind of life do you think is better: a life where you have a set time for doing everything, such as eating, sleeping, etc., or a life where you do these things whenever you want? – I think a life where you do these things whenever you want is better than a life where you have a set time for doing everything, such as eating, sleeping etc.
  3. What did I set down on the table when I came into the room at the beginning of the lesson? – You set your book down on the table when you came into the room at the beginning of the lesson
  4. If your watch isn’t showing the right time, what do you have to do? – If my watch isn’t showing the right time, I have to set it right
  5. What time is sunrise at the moment? – Sunrise is at about 6 a.m. at the moment
  6. And what time is sunset? – Sunset is at about 6 p.m.

duty – Things you are moral or legal responsible for

  1. What do you consider to be the duty a person owes to the society in which they live? – I consider that the duty a person owes to the society in which they live is to be honest, hard-working etc.
  2. What are the duties of a policeman? – The duties of a policeman are to give people help and information, catch criminals etc.
  3. Do policemen wear their uniforms when they’re off duty? – No, policemen don’t wear their uniforms when they’re off duty; they only wear them when they’re on duty
  4. If you brought a foreign car into this country, would you have to pay duty on it? – No, if I brought a foreign car into this country, I wouldn’t have to pay duty on it
  5. And if you didn’t pay, what’d happen? – If I didn’t pay, they might make me pay a fine, and even take the car away from me

Various – several different

  1. What are the various ways of learning a language? – The various ways of learning a language are at school with a teacher, going to the country where the language is spoken, practicing with a friend, listening to the radio, watching TV etc.
  2. Is there much entertainment for teenagers in your home town? – No, there isn’t much entertainment for teenagers in my hometown
  3. Is the weight of these two chairs about equal? – Yes, the weight of those two chairs is about equal
  4. Would you find it interesting to operate a factory machine? – No, I wouldn’t find it interesting to operate a factory machine
  5. Why not? – Because you do the same thing again and again
  6. Have you ever had an operation in the hospital? 病院で手術を受けたことはありますか? – No, I’ve never had an operation in hospital.

by the time – between now and the particular time

  1. Give me a sentence containing the words “by the time”. – By the time she gets here, dinner will be ready
  2. What does “by the time“ mean in that sentence? – “By the time“ in that sentence means at some point between now and when she gets here
  3. By the time you are ninety years old, do you suppose your hair will be grey? – Yes, by the time I’m ninety years old, I suppose my hair will be grey
  4. Will your English have improved by this time next month? – Yes, my English will have improved by this time next month

as well as : also

  1. Can you speak English as well as you speak your own language? – No, I can’t speak English as well as I speak my own language; I speak it worse than my own language
  2. Do you take English lessons on Sunday as well as during the week – No, I don’t take English lessons on Sunday as well as during the week
  3. What does that last question mean in other words? – That last question means “You take English lessons during the week, but do you also take English lessons on Sunday?”

elder, older の違い

  1. What’s the difference between the words “older” and “elder”? – The difference between the words “older” and “elder” is that we generally use the word “elder” when speaking about people in the same family, and we cannot say “elder than”
  2. Have you got an elder brother? – No, I haven’t got an elder brother
  3. Are you the eldest in your family? – No, I’m not the eldest in my family
  4. Who is? – My grandfather is the eldest in my family

letとrentの違い

let: lend something
rent: borrow something in exchange for money

  1. What’s the difference between “to let” and “to rent”? – The difference between “to let” and “to rent” is that “to let” means to lend something in exchange for money, whereas “to rent” means to borrow something in exchange for money
  2. Have you got an elder brother? – No, I haven’t got an elder brother
  3. Are you the eldest in your family? – No, I’m not the eldest in my family
  4. Who is? – My grandfather is the eldest in my family
  5. What’s the difference between “to let” and “to rent”? – The difference between “to let” and “to rent” is that “to let” means to lend something in exchange for money, whereas “to rent” means to borrow something in exchange for money
  6. Supposing you had a house or a flat to let, how would you advertise it? – Supposing I had a house or a flat to let, I’d advertise it in the newspaper or on the internet
  7. What’s the average monthly rent for a small flat in this town? – The average monthly rent for a small flat in this town is 1,000 dollars
  8. How much does it cost to rent a car for one day in this town? – It costs about 50 dollars to rent a car for one day in this town
  9. Do you ever rent DVDs to watch at home? – No, I never rent DVDs to watch at home
  10. Do you ever rent DVDs to watch at home? – No, I never rent DVDs to watch at home
  11. Is it common in your country for people to rent out rooms in their house – to students, for example? – No, it isn’t common in my country for people to rent out rooms in their house – to students *rent out = 貸し出す

fall の3つの変形動詞 fall – fell – fallen

  1. What are the three forms of “fall”? – The three forms of “fall” are “fall, fell, fallen”
  2. Have you ever fallen out of bed in the middle of the night? – No, I’ve never fallen out of bed in the middle of the night
  3. What’s the past of the verb “to choose”? – The past of the verb “to choose” is “chose”
  4. Did you choose the clothes you’re wearing yourself? – No, I didn’t choose the clothes I’m wearing myself someone else chose them for me
  5. Why do you suppose football is such a popular game? – I suppose football is such a popular game because it’s enjoyable to play and to watch. サッカーがこれほど人気のあるゲームであるのは、プレーするのも見るのも楽しいからでしょう。

such a : very

  1. Why is a desert such a difficult place to live in? – A desert is such a difficult place to live in because there is so little water

provide:  to make available

  1. Is a soldier’s uniform provided for him by the government? – Yes, a soldier’s uniform is provided for him by the government
  2. How do parents provide for their children? – Parents provide for their children by making sure they have all the things they need in life
  3. If you had just bought a house and then someone told you there was a ghost in it, what would you do, providing, of course, you believed in ghosts? もし、あなたが家を買ったばかりの時に、誰かがその家に幽霊がいると言ったら、あなたはどうしますか? – If I had just bought a house and then someone told me there was a ghost in it, I’d sell it, providing I believed in ghosts
  4. If you came to some crossroads while driving a car and, instead of stopping, you kept straight on, what might happen? もし、あなたが車を運転しているときに、いくつかの岐路に差し掛かって、止まらずにまっすぐ進んだとしたら、どうなるでしょうか? – If I came to some crossroads while driving a car and instead of stopping, I kept straight on, an accident might happen
  • fortnight: 14日間 (イギリスでよく使われる)
  1. How many days does a fortnight consist of? – A fortnight consists of fourteen days

place: to put something in a particular place carefully or deliberately

place は(定められた位置に)据える(参照)という単語イメージを持つ

  1. Why do we have to place an egg carefully on the table? – We have to place an egg carefully on the table because it could easily break

commence: to begin to happen; to begin something

  1. In which month does the academic year commence in your country? – The academic year commences in August in my country

appear:  to come into sight =視界に入ってくる

  1. What’s my hand doing? – Your hand is appearing and disappearing from under the table
  2. Does it appear to you that people in the world are becoming happier or less happy? – It appears to me that people in the world are becoming less happy
  3. Why? – Because everybody wants more than they have

get to know – learn more

  1. Do you judge people by appearances or do you wait until you get to know them well? – I don’t judge people by appearances; I wait until I get to know them well
  2. Which way of judging is fairer/fɛr/?どちらの方法で判断するのが公平なのでしょうか?- Judging people after getting to know them well is fairer

double – two times 2倍

  1. If we double the number 25, what do we get? – If we double the number 25, we get 50

trouble: problems or difficulties

  1. Do you have trouble remembering all the rules of grammar in English? – No, I don’t have trouble remembering all the rules of grammar in English

take the trouble: to make efforts 努力をする、わざわざ〜をする

  1. When children get into trouble, do they sometimes tell lies in order to get themselves out of trouble? – Yes, when children get into trouble, they sometimes tell lies in order to get themselves out of trouble

trouble (動詞) =disturb 邪魔をする

  1. When you are reading a book in your own language and you see a word you don’t know the meaning of, do you take the trouble to look it up in a dictionary or do you just keep on reading? – When I’m reading a book in my own language and I see a word I don’t know the meaning of, I don’t take the trouble to look it up in a dictionary; I just keep on reading
  2. Do dreams sometimes trouble you at night? – No, dreams never trouble me at night

modern: present time 

  1. What do you think is the trouble with modern life? – I think the trouble with modern life is that everything is expensive

comparativeとsuperlative, consonant (子音)

  1. When do we double the final consonant of an adjective informing its comparative and its superlative? 形容詞の最後の子音を2倍にして、比較級と最上級を形成するのはいつですか? – We double the final consonant of an adjective informing its comparative and its superlative when it ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel 比較級と最上級を表す形容詞の最後の子音が1つの子音で終わり、その前に1つの母音がある場合は、2倍にします。
  2. Give me an example, please. – thin – thinner than – the thinnest
  3. What happens when an adjective ends in a consonant plus “y“? 子音+”y “で終わる形容詞の場合は? – When an adjective ends in a consonant plus y, the “y“ is changed to “i“ 形容詞が子音+yで終わる場合は、”y “を “i “に変えます。
  4. Give me an example, please. – luckey – luckier than – the luckiest

though (conjunction: 接続詞)

接続詞のthoughは、「前に述べたこととは違うことをする」という意味合いを持っています。接続詞なので、節と節をつなげる使うことができます。

Give me an example of the word “though“, please. – Though she was feeling ill, she went on the business trip 体調を崩しながらも出張に出かけた。

delay something/delay doing something 何かを遅らせる/何かをするのを遅らせる

  1. Which is better though: to delay doing things or to do things at once without delay?遅れてやるのと、遅れずに一気にやるのと、どっちがいいんだろう? – It’s usually better to do things at once without delay 遅れずに一気にやった方がいいことが多い。
  2. When pupils are late for lessons, what kind of things have usually delayed them? 生徒がレッスンに遅れるとき、どんなことで遅れることが多いですか? – When pupils are late for lessons, the kind of things that have usually delayed them are oversleeping, transport etc. 生徒がレッスンに遅刻する場合、寝坊や交通機関の利用などが原因となることが多いようです。

across 前置詞、副詞 = 片方からもう片方へ

across the street と「渡る」と日本語で訳されがちですが、「from one side to the other side:一方から(対面する)もう一方へ」という意味合いが含まれています。

カランメソッドでは across の前置詞と副詞の使い方を学びます。前置詞は名詞の前に置かれてその名詞が置かれている状況などを示します。副詞は、名詞以外の、例えばTOEICに頻出するのは動詞や数詞(形容詞とされているため)を修飾する文法問題が出ます。

across ( adverb ) from one side to the other side ex. It’s too wide. We can’t swim across. 幅が広すぎる。泳いで渡ることはできません。

https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/american_english/across_1?q=across

  1. What must you do before you walk across the road? 道路を渡る前に何をしなければならないのか?- I must look both ways before I walk across the road 歩いて道路を渡るときは、必ず左右を確認しなければならない ※ 歩いて(=一方からもう一方へ横切って=across)渡る(←動詞)。
  2. What can you see across the street from this window? この窓からは、通りの向こう側に何が見えますか? – I can see another building across the street from this window この窓からは、道路を挟んで別のビルが見える ※(道路を挟んで=こちら側から道路を挟んだあちら側を見ている状況=across the street)
  3. If you can’t get across a river by bridge, how can you get across? 川を橋で渡れないなら、どうやって渡ればいいの?- If you can’t get across a river by bridge,you can get across by boat or by swimming across 橋で渡れない川でも、船や泳いで渡ることができる。

get across は句動詞(phrasal verb)の意味としても使われますが、上記の get across とは少し意味が違うと見受けられます。

get acorss phrasal verb : 伝達される、理解される、何かを伝えることに成功する to be communicated or understood; to succeed in communicating something

https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/american_english/get-across

across は前置詞と副詞でしか意味を持たないので、get ( 連結動詞 ) across (副詞) として使われているのだと見受けられます。

例えば、あるネイティブの見識は以下のようです。

(質問)教科書には「get」にはarrival, become, receiveの3つの意味があると書いてありました。そして、演習ではこんな文章があります。 We are getting close to the townこの文では、getはbecomeとarriveのどちらの意味でしょうか? -(回答) “get “は、その例では “become “に最も近い意味を持っています。coming to be」と言い換えてもよいでしょう。”We are coming to be close to the town.”

https://thegrammarexchange.infopop.cc/topic/is-get-a-linking-verb-or-not

come across 句動詞 =ばったり会う

come across は句動詞で、come across と2語をセットで使います。come とacross の二つの単語からなんとなく意味は見えますが、きちんと概念とその日本語訳を覚えておきたいところです。

come acorss (句動詞) 意味例文
1. to be understood 理解されるHe spoke for a long time but his meaning didn’t really come across. 彼は長い間話していたが、その意味はあまり伝わらなかった。
2. to make a particular impression 特定の印象を作るShe comes across well in interviews. 彼女はインタビューでもしっかりと答えてくれます。
come across somebody/something
 [no passive] = to meet or find someone or something by chance 偶然人に会う
I came across children sleeping under bridges. 橋の下で寝ている子供たちを見かけた。
come across (with something)
 [no passive]
to provide or supply something when you need it 必要な時に物を供給する
I hoped she’d come across with some more information. 彼女が何か情報を持ってきてくれることを期待していた。
参照: https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/american_english/come-across?q=come+across

lift = rising movement

日本語では「リフト」と雪山やスキー場で使われる乗り物のことを指しますが、英語では「上に行くその状況」を指すようです。

そのほかにも知らなかった意味があるのでご紹介します。

lift 名詞 
1. free ride [countable] a free ride in a car, etc. to a place you want to get to 車などに無料で乗って、行きたい場所に行くこと。 I’ll give you a lift to the train station. 駅まで送ってあげるよ。
2. happier feeling: [singular] a feeling of being happier or more confident than before 以前よりも幸せになったり、自信がついたりする感覚 (= boost)Passing the exam gave him a real lift. この試験に合格したことで、彼は本当に元気になった。
3. rising movement [単数形】何かが上昇したり、持ち上げられたりする動きthe puzzled lift of his eyebrows 眉毛を上げて困惑している様子
4. on aircraft 航空機が飛行中に空気の圧力で上昇すること。
参照:https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/american_english/lift_2
  1. If a lift isn’t working, what do we have to do? リフトが動かない時はどうすればいいの?- If a lift isn’t working, we have to take the stairs エレベーターが動いていないときは、階段で移動します。

tell : judge or say something 判断する

Oxford オンライン辞典によると、動詞のtellの6番目の意味に「know/judge」ときちんと書いてあります。カランメソッドの Stage6では「judge or say something」と説明されています。

  1. Do you think it’s possible to tell a person’s character just by looking at their face?顔を見ただけで、その人の性格がわかると思いますか? – No, I don’t think it’s possible to tell a person’s character just by looking at their face いや、顔を見ただけではその人の性格はわからないと思いますよ
  2. Can we often tell where somebody comes from by their accent? 訛りで出身地がわかることはよくありますか? – Yes, we can often tell where somebody comes from by their accent 訛りで出身地がわかることもあります。

check in / check out

  1. When you arrive at a hotel, where do you check in? ホテルに到着したら、どこでチェックインしますか? – When you arrive at a hotel, you check in at the reception desk ホテルに到着すると、フロントでチェックインする。
  2. And what does the receptionist hand you when you’ve finished checking in? また、チェックインが終わったときに、受付の人が手渡してくれるものは何ですか? – The receptionist hands you the key to the room when you’ve finished checking in. チェックインが終わると、受付の人が部屋の鍵を渡してくれます。
  3. On the day you leave a hotel, what time do you usually have to check out by? ホテルを出る日は、通常何時までにチェックアウトしなければならないのでしょうか? – On the day you leave a hotel, you usually have to check-out by noon ホテルを出る日は、通常、正午までにチェックアウトしなければなりません。
  4. At the airport, do you usually check in all your luggage or do you carry some of it onto the plane with you? 空港では、通常、すべての荷物をチェックインするのか、それとも一部の荷物を飛行機に持ち込むのか。 – At the airport, I usually carry some of my luggage onto the plane with me. 空港では通常、荷物の一部を持って飛行機に乗り込みます。

degend 動詞 攻撃から守る

動詞 defend は他動詞、自動詞ともに使うことができます。

他動詞の例文

defend somebody/yourself/something Troops have been sent to defend the borders. 国境を守るために軍隊が派遣された。

https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/american_english/defend?q=defend

自動詞の例文

defend somebody/yourself/something from/against somebody/something All our officers are trained to defend themselves against knife attacks. すべての警官は、ナイフ攻撃から身を守るための訓練を受けています。

https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/american_english/defend?q=defend

keep quiet (句動詞) 静かにする

keep quiet が句動詞であることを今まで知りませんでした。カランメソッドで学び、改めて辞書を引くことで新しい発見をしました。

Idioms keep quiet about somethingkeep something quiet to say nothing about something; to keep something secret 何かについて何も言わないこと、何かを秘密にすること ex. I’ve decided to resign, but I’d like you to keep quiet about it 私は辞職を決意したが、あなたには黙っていてほしい。

https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/american_english/quiet_1#quiet_1__127

お疲れ様でした

カランメソッドの Stage 6 はこれにて終わりです。 Stage 7 も引き続き頑張っていきます。カランメソッドは何があっても毎日続けていきます。今、カランメソッドを行っている方々、一緒に頑張っていきましょう。